Reading Apprenticeship, offered by WestEd, provides a teaching practices approach to SEL. It includes programming for grades 6-12 and demonstrates evidence of effectiveness in grades 9 and 11.
Strategies supporting educational equity
Reading Apprenticeship provides strategies for understanding context. This includes explicit strategies and guidance to facilitate teachers’ learning about the cultural backgrounds, everyday experiences, and perspectives of students.
- SEL lessons
- Instructional practices
- Relationship building
- Positive classroom management
- SEL generalization
- Shared agreements
- Student voice
- Adult SEL
- Peer mentoring
- School Involvement
- Activities and Resources for Home
- Onsite in-person training
- Virtual training
- Offsite training
- Train the trainer model
- Administrator support
- Technical assistance
- Professional Learning Communities (PLCs)
- Online resource library
- Self-report tools for monitoring implementation
- Observational tools
- Tools for measuring student success
Evidence of effectiveness
Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) conducted in 2005-2007 (published in 2010) supported the effectiveness of Reading Apprenticeship for high school students. This evaluation included 5,595 students in grade 9 (Black = 42%, white = 31%, Latinx = 25%; eligible for FRPL = 67%). Students in grade 9 who participated in the program earned higher grade point averages, achieved higher standardized test scores in English language arts and mathematics, and had fewer problem behaviors when compared to students in the control group (9 months after baseline, analyses controlled for outcome pretest and student demographic covariates).
Results from an unpublished quasi-experimental evaluation (unpublished report written in 2011) supported the effectiveness of Reading Apprenticeship for high school students. This evaluation included students in grade 11 at 40 participating schools (Latinx = 39%, other/mixed race = 34%, white = 14%). For grade 11 classrooms that participated in the program, higher scores were achieved on standardized test scores for history, and teachers in those classrooms self-reported using teaching practices that promote SEL to a higher degree than teachers in the control group (12 months after baseline, analyses controlled for outcome pretest).
Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) published in 2019 supported the effectiveness of Reading Apprenticeship for high school students. This evaluation was conducted on a sample of 979 adolescents in grade 9 (Latinx = 34%, Black = 26%, white = 19%, other/mixed race = 16%). This evaluation found that students who received the intervention had greater science comprehension compared to students in the control group (22 weeks after baseline, analyses controlled for outcome pretest and student demographic covariates). Additionally, teachers implementing and receiving training on the Reading Apprenticeship program demonstrated higher self- and observer-reported higher-order teaching practices than control teachers.
Evidence shown in grades9, 11 School characteristics
- Black / African American
- Hispanic / Latinx
- Multi-racial / other
- Low income
Percentage Low Income
- Percentage of students eligible for free or reduced price lunch: 67%
Study design type
Greater than 350 students included in study design type
Multiple school districts included at study design type
- Improved academic performance
- Reduced emotional distress
- Improved identity development and agency
- Reduced problem behaviors
- Improved school climate
- Improved school connectedness
- Improved social behaviors
- Improved teaching practices
- Improved other SEL skills and attitudes
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Goldman, S. R., Greenleaf, C., Yukhymenko-Lescroart, M., Brown, W., Ko, M. L. M., Emig, J. M., … & Britt, M. A. (2019). Explanatory modeling in science through text-based investigation: Testing the efficacy of the Project READI intervention approach. American Educational Research Journal, 56, 1148-1216.
Greenleaf, C., Hanson, T., Herman, J., Litman, C., Rosen, R., Schneider, S., & Silver, D. (2011). A study of the efficacy of Reading Apprenticeship Professional Development for High School History and Science Teaching and Learning. Unpublished report.
Somers, M. A., Corrin, W., Sepanik, S., Salinger, T., Levin, J., and Zmach, C. (2010). The Enhanced Reading Opportunities Study Final Report: The Impact of Supplemental Literacy Courses for Struggling Ninth-Grade Readers (NCEE 2010-4021). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.