Responsive Classroom, offered by the Center for Responsive Schools, provides a teaching practices approach to SEL. It includes programming for grades. K-6 and demonstrates evidence of effectiveness in grades 1-4.
Strategies supporting educational equity
Responsive Classroom provides strategies for working with bias. This includes training offerings where educators examine developmental characteristics and are challenged to address potential biases through this examination.
- SEL lessons
- Instructional practices
- Relationship building
- Positive classroom management
- SEL generalization
- Shared agreements
- Student voice
- Systemic support for SEL
- Adult SEL
- Student supports
- Family Intervention Component
- School Involvement
- Activities and Resources for Home
- Individualized Communication
- Onsite in-person training
- Virtual training
- Offsite training
- Train the trainer model
- Administrator support
- Technical assistance
- Professional Learning Communities (PLCs)
- Online resource library
- Self-report tools for monitoring implementation
- Observational tools
- Tools for measuring student success
Evidence of effectiveness
Results from a quasi-experimental evaluation published in 2007 (Rimm-Kaufman, Fan, et al.) supported the effectiveness of Responsive Classroom for elementary school students. This evaluation included 1,389 grade 2 through 4 students (white = 52%, Black = 21%, Latinx = 20%). This evaluation found that students in classrooms participating in the program demonstrated increases in standardized reading and mathematics test scores compared to students in the control (outcomes reported approximately 2 and 3 years after baseline while controlled for outcome pretest and relevant student demographics).
Results from a quasi-experimental evaluation published in 2007 (Rimm-Kaufman & Chiu) supported the effectiveness of Responsive Classroom for elementary school students. This evaluation included 157 grade 1 through 4 students enrolled in urban schools in the US Northeast (white = 74%, Hispanic = 12%; 19% resided in households with low income for the region). This evaluation found that students in classrooms participating in the program demonstrated increases in teacher-reported positive social behaviors, including assertiveness and prosociality, reading grades, student-teacher closeness, as well as reductions in anxious-fearful behavior, compared to students in the control group (outcomes reported approximately 9 months after baseline while controlled for outcome pretest).
Evidence shown in grades1, 2, 3, 4 School characteristics
- Black / African American
- Hispanic / Latinx
- Low income
Percentage Low Income
- Low parent income levels: 19%
Study design type
Greater than 350 students included in study design type
Multiple school districts included at study design type
- Improved academic performance
- Reduced emotional distress
- Improved identity development and agency
- Reduced problem behaviors
- Improved school climate
- Improved school connectedness
- Improved social behaviors
- Improved teaching practices
- Improved other SEL skills and attitudes
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- Accepted by CASEL
Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., & Chiu, Y. I. (2007). Promoting social and academic competence in the classroom: An intervention study examining the contribution of the Responsive Classroom approach. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 397-413.
Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Fan, X., Chiu, Y. J., & You, W. (2007). The contribution of the Responsive Classroom Approach on children’s academic achievement: Results from a three year longitudinal study. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 401-421.
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- Other references
Brock, L. L., Nishida, K. K., Chiong, C., Grimm, K. J., & Rimm-Kaurman, S. E. (2008). Children’s perceptions of the social environment and social and academic performance: A longitudinal analysis of the Responsive Classroom approach. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 129-149.
Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., & Sawyer, B. E. (2004). Primary grade teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes toward teaching, and discipline and teaching practice priorities in relation to the “Responsive Classroom” approach. The Elementary School Journal, 104, 321-341.
Sawyer, L. B. E. & Rimm-Kauffman, S. E. (2007). Teacher collaboration in the context of the Responsive Classroom approach. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 13, 211-245