The Fourth R, offered by the Western Centre for School Mental Health, provides a lesson-based apporach to SEL. It includes programming for grades 6-12 and demonstrates evidence of effectiveness in grades 7-9. Translated materials for The Fourth R are available in French and Spanish.
- SEL lessons
- Instructional practices
- Relationship building
- SEL generalization
- Shared agreements
- Student voice
- Community partnerships
- Activities and Resources for Home
- Onsite in-person training
- Virtual training
- Offsite training
- Train the trainer model
- Administrator support
- Technical assistance
- Professional Learning Communities (PLCs)
- Online resource library
- Self-report tools for monitoring implementation
- Observational tools
- Tools for measuring student success
Evidence of effectiveness
Results of a randomized control trial (RCT) evaluation published in 2009 supported the effectiveness of Fourth R for high school students. This evaluation was conducted on a sample of 1,722 adolescents in grade 9 in Canada (predominantly white). It found that participants who received the intervention reported lower rates of physical dating violence at post-test (30 months after baseline while controlling for outcome pre-test) compared to students from the control group, controlling for baseline differences in rate of dating violence.
Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) published in 2015 support the effectiveness of The Fourth R for middle school students. The evaluation included 1,012 grade 7 and 8 students in Canada (white = ~74%, Indigenous Peoples = ~17%). This evaluation found that students who participated in the program demonstrated greater critical thinking and awareness of the impact of violence on victims, as well as greater positive stress coping strategies compared to students in the comparison group (while controlling for outcome post-test). These findings were especially true for female students compared to male students.
- Non-US location
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- Improved academic performance
- Reduced emotional distress
- Improved identity development and agency
- Reduced problem behaviors
- Improved school climate
- Improved school connectedness
- Improved social behaviors
- Improved teaching practices
- Improved other SEL skills and attitudes
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- Accepted by CASEL
Crooks, C. V., Scott, K. L., Broll, R., Zwarych, S., Hughes, R., & Wolfe, D. A. (2015). Does an evidence-based healthy relationships program for 9th graders show similar effects for 7th and 8th graders? Results from 57 schools randomized to intervention. Health Education Research, Health Education Research, 30 513-519.
Wolfe, D. A., Crooks, C., Jaffe, P., Chiodo, D., Hughes, R., Ellis, W., & Donner, A. (2009). A school-based program to prevent adolescent dating violence: A cluster randomized trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163, 692-699.
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- Other references
Crooks, C. V., Chiodo, D., Zwarych, S., Hughes, R., & Wolfe, D. A. (2013). Predicting implementation success of an evidence-based program to promote healthy relationships among students two to eight years after teacher training. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 32,125-138.
Crooks, C.V., Scott, K., Ellis, W., & Wolfe, D. (2011). Impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on violent delinquency: Distinctive benefits for youth with maltreatment histories. Child Abuse and Neglect, 35, 393-400.
Crooks, C. V., Zwarych, S., Burns, S., & Hughes, R. (2014). The Fourth R implementation manual: Building for success from adoption to sustainability. London, ON: CAMH Centre for Prevention Science.
Wolfe, D. A., Crooks, C. V., Chiodo, D., Hughes, R., & Ellis, W. (2012). Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based health relationship program: A Post-intervention comparison. Prevention Science, 13,196-205.